From the western United States to the Indian subcontinent, water issues have always been economic issues. Considered ubiquitous under the continents, groundwater varies considerably in depth, quality, accessibility, and availability. A unified discussion of groundwater and its economic importance, Groundwater Economics explores the application of economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis for the use, protection, remediation and conservation of groundwater.
The book reviews the major economic uses of and demand for groundwater, provides an ecosystem context for resource withdrawals, discusses the application of economics to groundwater policy and decisions, and explores the economics of groundwater sustainability. It examines the legal basis for groundwater use and access, then addresses drinking water, irrigation, and waste disposal. The author considers micro- and macro-economic factors, cost-benefit tools, sustainability, transboundary considerations, climate change and policy evaluation, ease of policy implementation, and societal acceptance. He synthesizes key points into practical steps for future application, describing ways to evaluate the economics of groundwater use in the context of the larger ecosystem and the natural capital it provides.
The comprehensive approach taken by this book addresses a full range groundwater topics building on other supporting disciplines, rather than focusing solely on how to evaluate the economics of remediation of contaminated sites or of a single resource use. This multidisciplinary course is a more current way to address this complex issue, compared to the single-discipline approach that addresses groundwater as a physical resource on the one hand and its economics on the other. This unified approach presents an array of tools and factors for the evaluation of the economics of proposals for future groundwater use in relation to the ecosystem and its sustainability.
The focus of this book is on filtering for linear processes, and its primary goal is to design filters from a class of linear stable unbiased filters that yield an estimation error with the lowest root-mean-square (RMS) norm. Various hierarchical classes of filtering problems are defined based on the availability of statistical knowledge regarding noise, disturbances, and other uncertainties.
An important characteristic of the approach employed in this work for several aspects of filter analysis and design is structural in nature, revealing an inherent freedom to incorporate other classical secondary engineering constraints-such as placement of filter poles at desired locations-in filter design. Such a structural approach requires an understanding of powerful tools that then may be used in several engineering applications besides filtering.
Key features and topics covered:
* Provides an in-depth structural study of powerful tools such as Riccati equations, linear matrix inequalities, and quadratic matrix inequalities.
* Develops a general and structural theory of H2 and H-infinity optimal filtering as well as generalized H2 and H-infinity optimal filtering in a broad framework with an extensive and complete analysis and synthesis of filter design.
* Examines several hierarchically ordered layers of noise decoupled filtering problems under a single umbrella.
* Illustrates the application of filtering theory to fault detection, isolation, and estimation.
Filtering Theory is aimed at a broad audience of practicing engineers, graduate students, and researchers in filtering, signal processing, and control. The book may serve as an advanced graduate text for a course or seminar in filtering theory in applied mathematics or engineering departments. Prerequisites for the reader are a first graduate course in state-space methods as well as a first course in filtering.
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