After manpower, energy is the highest operating cost item for most the wastewater utilities. Over the last decade, the implementation of new technologies to meet new effluent limits and water quality standards has considerably increased energy consumption by the sector. The price of energy has also substantially increased in the same period. In North America and Europe, some utilities have reported significant increases in energy costs in recent years, and with oil prices continuing to fluctuate, further substantial increases in operating costs could be expected. Those increases will be compounded by the need to meet additional new regulations that will require energy-intensive treatment processes to achieve tight standards. High energy consumption will affect the wastewater industry worldwide and is inextricably linked to the issue of Climate Change. Through its Optimization Challenge program, the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) is currently participating in the Global Water Research Coalition's (GWRC) project titled Energy Efficiency in the Water Industry: A Compendium of Best Practices and Case Studies. The objective of the GWRC project is to develop a Compendium of best practice (worldwide) in the energy-efficient design and operation of water industry assets. For this project, WERF is serving the role of North America wastewater practice coordinator. Through this assignment, WERF intends to define specific recommendations regarding: * Incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimization of existing assets and operations * More substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies As part of the GWRC project, WERF has developed this report summarizing existing information on well-established energy optimization/energy recovery best practices, as well as documenting a series of case studies of novel (yet full-scale proven) technologies/practices in wastewater treatment in primarily North America.
This book has been conceived to extend the generally published work on one- and two-dimensional digital filters in order to include some of the more recently developed ideas. It is intended to supplement and build on the classical books which cover the fundamental concepts of the topic. As a consequence of this, the basic theory is stated in a compact manner and is not developed thoroughly, as this would result in considerable duplication of existing books. The main theme of the book has been to provide a comprehensive background to the methods available for the realization of both recursive and nonrecursive digital filters, and to give an insight into some of the more recent implementation procedures. The book is planned to cover one- and two-dimensional systems in parallel, showing the techniques which are applicable in both areas, and also the limitations and constraints necessary when a one-dimensional technique is extended to systems of higher dimensionality. The theme of the book commences with several chapters on the design of filter transfer functions to meet given specifications. This is followed by a discussion of methods of implementing these in a practical system and the limitations imposed as a result of noise and finite word length. Finally, a discussion of some applications is included.
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